Internet Services, Modems & Routers, Tech Reviews, Computer Networking, Security, and more!

Afroz Ahmad – Main Author of

Welcome to Afroz Ahmad – I’ve been writing about computer network technologies on my blog since 2012. My name is Afroz Ahmad, and I am a seasoned Network Engineer and author of

I’m a CCIE with more than 17 years of experience in Computer Networking, Data Centers, Telecom, Internet Services, and ISPs. Currently, I work as a Network Designer for a leading ISP equipment vendor. I share my expertise through my blog and courses, aiming to help people solve everyday internet issues, select the appropriate equipment for their tech needs, and simplify complex networking concepts for both beginners and experienced professionals.

Read more about me >>

Reach out to me with any questions you have on Computer Networking, Modems, Routers, Internet services, etc.

Popular Posts

Latest Posts

What Does VPS Stand For

What Does VPS Stand For?

Afroz AhmadOct 4, 202211 min read
What does VPS stand for? A VPS is an acronym for Virtual Private Server. It is a remote server hosted in the cloud, where you can host almost anything you can host locally on your computer or a server.
OSPF Virtual Link Explained

OSPF Virtual Link Explained in Detail

Afroz AhmadSep 26, 20224 min read
In this article, we will discuss OSPF virtual link, when you should use it, requirements, key points, and how to configure it. As a bonus, we will also discuss an alternative option for the OSPF virtual link.
OSPF Network Types Explained

OSPF Network Types Explained

Afroz AhmadSep 15, 202211 min read
There are three OSPF network types: broadcast, point-to-point, and non-broadcast. There are also two Cisco-proprietary types: point-to-multipoint and point-to-multipoint non-broadcast. Let’s explore all five OSPF network types.
OSPF Area Border Routers ABR

What are the Types of OSPF Routers, Area Border Routers, or ABRs?

Afroz AhmadAug 18, 20228 min read
This article will discuss the types of OSPF routers, the Area Border Routers (ABR) in OSPF, why we need them, and how to configure them to optimize overall OSPF and network performance.
OSPF Area Types - Standard and Backbone Area

OSPF Area Types – [Infographics]

Afroz AhmadAug 11, 202210 min read
This blog post will explain what OSPF area types are, why we need them, their benefits, how they work, and how to configure them in your network.
OSPF LSA Types Explained with Infographic Cheat Sheet

OSPF LSA Types Explained – [Infographic Cheat Sheet]

Afroz AhmadAug 4, 202210 min read
Do you know that OSPF uses only six common OSPF LSA types out of a total of eleven types of LSA? In this blog post, I will dig deep into all the LSAs, explaining what they do and how to use commands to check them.
OSPF States Infographic

OSPF states Explained [with Infograhic]

Afroz AhmadJul 26, 20228 min read
Let us look into OSPF states: down, init, 2-way, exstart state, exchange state, loading, and full state, which help a router form OSPF’s neighbor adjacency.
What is OSPF in Networking

Open Shortest Path First – What is OSPF in Networking

Afroz AhmadJul 20, 20229 min read
Learn about Open Shortest Path First or What is OSPF in networking and How it works and forms neighbors with other OSPF routers. In Short, the OSPF protocol is a link-state routing protocol that is designed to work in a single Autonomous System.
Routing Information Protocol - RIP

What is Routing Information Protocol – RIP v1 and v2 – The Definitive Guide

Afroz AhmadJul 14, 202213 min read
In this post, we'll define what is Routing Information Protocol, or RIP and how this routing protocol works, and show its pros and cons before diving into details like versions (RIP v1 and v2), timers, update types, and configuration.
Dynamic Routing Protocols Types

Understanding Dynamic Routing Protocols Types [with Infographic]

Afroz AhmadJul 8, 202216 min read
Routers run different dynamic routing protocols types to update their routing table automatically. Depending on the scale and nature of your network, you might need to use one or more different types of routing protocols explained in this article.
What is a Floating Static Route - Example with IP SLA

What is a floating static route, and its characteristic?

Afroz AhmadJun 27, 20226 min read
In this blog post, you’ll learn about floating static routes, their characteristics, and why you might use them. Discover how to configure floating static routes effectively with a workflow and sample configuration for real-world scenarios.
What is a routing table and what is its decision process

What is a Routing table, explained with Show IP Route Command Cisco

Afroz AhmadJun 21, 20228 min read
Wondering what is a routing table and what are the types of routes it contains? Read on to learn more! Furthermore, we will explain why the router uses routing tables and how you can use the show ip route command cisco to view its contents.
Best Computer Networking Course Online

Best Computer Networking Course Online for Beginners with Ratings

Afroz AhmadJun 14, 202226 min read
Finding the best computer networking course online can be difficult if you want to pursue a networking career. So look no further than this list of hand-crafted 18 beginner-level computer networking courses online. These courses will teach you networking basics and help you start your computer networking career.
What is Routing in Networking and How does routing work?

What is Routing in Networking, and How Does Routing Work?

Afroz AhmadJun 1, 202212 min read
Understanding how routing and routers work is essential if you want to troubleshoot or design networks. So please read this article to learn more about routing in networking, and its related details like how routing works, routers, different types of routing, etc.
TCP IP vs OSI Model Layers Comparison

Comparison between TCP IP vs OSI Model (with Cheatsheet PDF)

Afroz AhmadMay 9, 20224 min read
The TCP IP and OSI model are two different models used to explain how a network operates. We will look at key similarities and differences between TCP IP vs OSI model in this article.
4 layers of the tcp ip model

What are the 4 layers of the TCP IP model?

Afroz AhmadApr 27, 202211 min read
Learn what are the 4 layers of the TCP IP model, how they work together, and which protocols they use. Bonus – How to use the TCP IP model for troubleshooting.
OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic

OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic

Afroz AhmadApr 18, 20221 min read
This OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic is a free resource to get a quick summary of the most important concepts of the OSI model.
OSI Model layers explanation

What are the 7 Layers of OSI Model in Networking?

Afroz AhmadApr 13, 202215 min read
This blog post will explain the 7 layers of OSI Model, and how they work with each other in easy-to-understand language.

Which is Better and Why?- MSTP vs RSTP vs STP vs PVSTP vs RPVST

Afroz AhmadMar 31, 20224 min read
Delve into “MSTP vs RSTP vs STP vs PVSTP vs RPVST”: Key distinctions include convergence speeds, VLAN management, and device compatibility.
What is MSTP - Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

What is MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

Afroz AhmadMar 25, 202211 min read
This blog post will discuss What is MSTP or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, its core components, its real benefits and drawbacks, configuration, and best practices.