Internet Services, Modems & Routers, Tech Reviews, Computer Networking, Security, and more!

Afroz Ahmad – Main Author of

Welcome to Afroz Ahmad – I’ve been writing about computer network technologies on my blog since 2012. My name is Afroz Ahmad, and I am a seasoned Network Engineer and author of

I’m a CCIE with more than 17 years of experience in Computer Networking, Data Centers, Telecom, Internet Services, and ISPs. Currently, I work as a Network Designer for a leading ISP equipment vendor. I share my expertise through my blog and courses, aiming to help people solve everyday internet issues, select the appropriate equipment for their tech needs, and simplify complex networking concepts for both beginners and experienced professionals.

Read more about me >>

Reach out to me with any questions you have on Computer Networking, Modems, Routers, Internet services, etc.

Latest Posts

TCP IP vs OSI Model Layers Comparison

Comparison between TCP IP vs OSI Model (with Cheatsheet PDF)

Afroz AhmadMay 9, 20225 min read
The TCP IP and OSI model are two different models used to explain how a network operates. We will look at key similarities and differences between TCP IP vs OSI model in this article.
4 layers of the tcp ip model

What are the 4 layers of the TCP IP model?

Afroz AhmadApr 27, 202211 min read
Learn what are the 4 layers of the TCP IP model, how they work together, and which protocols they use. Bonus – How to use the TCP IP model for troubleshooting.
OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic

OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic

Afroz AhmadApr 18, 20222 min read
This OSI Model Cheat Sheet Infographic is a free resource to get a quick summary of the most important concepts of the OSI model.
OSI Model layers explanation

What are the 7 Layers of OSI Model in Networking?

Afroz AhmadApr 13, 202215 min read
This blog post will explain the 7 layers of OSI Model, and how they work with each other in easy-to-understand language.

Which is Better and Why?- MSTP vs RSTP vs STP vs PVSTP vs RPVST

Afroz AhmadMar 31, 20224 min read
Delve into “MSTP vs RSTP vs STP vs PVSTP vs RPVST”: Key distinctions include convergence speeds, VLAN management, and device compatibility.
What is MSTP - Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

What is MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

Afroz AhmadMar 25, 202211 min read
This blog post will discuss What is MSTP or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, its core components, its real benefits and drawbacks, configuration, and best practices.
What is RSTP in Networking

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol – What Is RSTP In Networking?

Afroz AhmadMar 17, 202212 min read
Learn about Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, what is RSTP in Networking, how it works, best practices, and how to configure it.
STP Spanning Tree Protocol Explained

STP – Spanning Tree Protocol explained in detail

Afroz AhmadMar 9, 202222 min read
Spanning Tree Protocol is a layer 2 protocol that is designed to prevent loops in the network. This blog post explains Spanning Tree Protocol in-depth.
What is an EtherChannel in Networking

What is an EtherChannel in Networking – The Beginner’s Guide

Afroz AhmadFeb 23, 202214 min read
EtherChannels boost network bandwidth, redundancy, and load balancing. This article covers what EtherChannels are, their significance, how they function, various types and modes, a configuration example, best practices, and troubleshooting.
what is vtp in networking

VLAN Trunking Protocol: What is VTP in Networking

Afroz AhmadFeb 14, 202212 min read
What is VTP in networking and what problem does it solve? – VTP is a Cisco proprietary layer2 messaging protocol that allows for the dynamic management of VLANs on a network. Let us dive in and understand VTP in depth.
What is auto negotiation in ethernet

What is Auto Negotiation in Ethernet – with Infographic

Afroz AhmadFeb 7, 202210 min read
Learn how to configure your network with auto negotiation in ethernet devices. This setting will allow you to automatically detect and set the speed and duplex of your network interface/adapter.
Ethernet Switch vs Hub vs Router

Ethernet Switch vs Hub vs Router: Key Differences

Afroz AhmadJan 28, 20223 min read
Discover how Ethernet switches, hubs, and routers differ in speed, functionality, and network management.
What is the definition of a computer network

What is the Definition of a Computer Network: Components, Uses, and Types

Afroz AhmadJan 19, 202220 min read
Computer networks are an amazing invention in networking that allows people and devices to connect and share information and services over vast distances. Learn about the basic Definition of a Computer Network, its connected components, uses, and types.
Vlan Tagged vs Untagged

VLAN Tagged vs Untagged – What is the difference?

Afroz AhmadJan 6, 20226 min read
Dive into the world of VLAN Tagged vs Untagged setups and grasp the fundamental differences. Learn how they impact network communication.

What are VLANs and Private VLANs and How VLANs work

Afroz AhmadJan 4, 202215 min read
Learn what are VLANs(Virtual Local Area Networks), or Virtual LANs, their benefits, configuration on switches, and how VLANs work. A brief overview of Private VLANs.
Ip Subnetting and CIDR Cheat Sheet PDF

IP Subnetting Cheat Sheet (free PDF) for Network Engineers

Afroz AhmadDec 7, 20219 min read
IP Subnetting divides IP addresses and networks into smaller groups, determining the network and host bits. Learn more with the IP subnetting and CIDR cheat sheet.
IKEv1 vs IKEv2

IKEv1 vs IKEv2 – What is the Difference?

Afroz AhmadNov 29, 20212 min read
Discover the differences between IKEv1 vs IKEv2 protocols in this comprehensive comparison. Understand the nuances for better protection.
More than 150 interview questions of network engineer

150+ Interview Questions for Network Engineers with Answers [Includes PDF]

Afroz AhmadNov 23, 202147 min read
Find out if you’re ready for the next step in your networking career with these tips and basic to advanced level interview questions of network engineers with answers.
What is cisco vpc

What is Cisco vPC: Benefits, Components, Config & Best Practices

Afroz AhmadOct 1, 20219 min read
What is Cisco vPC: It is a Cisco Nexus Switch-specific feature that provides the capability to the links of the third device that are physically connected to two different Cisco Nexus Switches to appear as a single port channel.
Tips for Video Interview

Practical Tips for Video Interview: A step by step Guide

Afroz AhmadSep 23, 202116 min read
After coronavirus, recruiters post jobs and immediately start taking video interviews of the applicants to make a snap judgment for a good fit. In today’s blog, we’ll be discussing practical tips for video interview. We’ll go over some simple tips, setup, do’s, and don’ts for the interview.